Being Overwhelmed or Hopefully In Search for Alternative Solutions, Is the World On the Verge of Leaving a Global Mostly Sedentary Civilization for a Nomadic One?? – 12/09/2014

For Your Entertainment (FYE)

The World appears to be overwhelmed or, hopefully, in search for alternative solutions to lack of biological, cultural, ecological, economical, ideological, political, religious  sustainable realistic positive evolution on the global refugees, populations poverty and other issues front.  

In addition to unsustainable ecology lifestyle resulting in climate change and world populations alienation, it seems the World is on the verge of leaving a global mostly sedentary civilization solution for returning to a nomadic, even, maybe, stateless, or, islamic state, one…………

“A nomad (Greekνομάςnomas, plural νομάδες, nomades; meaning one roaming about for pasture, pastoral tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another. Among the various ways Nomads relate to their environment, one can distinguish the hunter-gatherer, the pastoral nomad owning livestock, or the “modern” peripatetic nomad. As of 1995, there were an estimated 30–40 million nomads in the world.

“Nomadic hunting and gathering, following seasonally available wild plants and game, is by far the oldest human subsistence method. Pastoralists raise herds, driving them, and/or moving with them, in patterns that normally avoid depleting pastures beyond their ability to recover.”

“Nomadism is also a lifestyle adapted to infertile regions such as steppetundra, or ice and sand, where mobility is the most efficient strategy for exploiting scarce resources.”

“Sometimes also described as “nomadic” are the various itinerant populations who move about in densely populated areas living not on natural resources, but by offering services (craft or trade) to the resident population. These groups are known as “peripatetic nomads”.

“One of the results of the break-up of the Soviet Union and the subsequent political independence and economic collapse of its Central Asian republics has been the resurgence of pastoral nomadism. Taking the Kyrgyz people as a representative example, nomadism was the centre of their economy before Russian colonization at the turn of the 20th century, when they were settled into agricultural villages. The population became increasingly urbanized after World War II, but some people still take their herds of horses and cows to high pastures (jailoo) every summer, continuing a pattern of transhumance.”

“Since the 1990s, as the cash economy shrank, unemployed relatives were reabsorbed into family farms, and the importance of this form of nomadism has increased. The symbols of nomadism, specifically the crown of the grey felt tent known as the yurt, appears on the national flag, emphasizing the central importance of nomadism in the genesis of the modern nation of Kyrgyzstan.”

“In 1920, nomadic pastoral tribes represented over a quarter of Iran‘s population. Tribal pastures were nationalized during the 1960s. The National Commission of UNESCO registered the population of Iran at 21 million in 1963, of whom two million (9.5%) were nomads. Although the nomadic population of Iran has dramatically decreased in the 20th century, Iran still has one of the largest nomadic populations in the world, an estimated 1.5 million in a country of about 70 million.”

“In Kazakhstan where the major agricultural activity was nomadic herding, forced collectivizationunder Joseph Stalin‘s rule met with massive resistance and major losses and confiscation of livestock. Livestock in Kazakhstan fell from 7 million cattle to 1.6 million and from 22 million sheep to 1.7 million. The resulting famine of 1931–1934 caused some 1.5 million deaths: this represents more than 40% of the total Kazakh population at that time.[14]
In the 1950s as well as the 1960s, large numbers of Bedouin throughout the Middle East started to leave the traditional, nomadic life to settle in the cities of the Middle East, especially as home ranges have shrunk and population levels have grown. Government policies in Egypt and Israel, oil production in Libya and the Persian Gulf, as well as a desire for improved standards of living, effectively led most Bedouin to become settled citizens of various nations, rather than stateless nomadic herders. A century ago nomadic Bedouin still made up some 10% of the total Arabpopulation. Today they account for some 1% of the total.”

“At independence in 1960, Mauritania was essentially a nomadic society. The great Sahel droughts of the early 1970s caused massive problems in a country where 85% of its inhabitants were nomadic herders. Today only 15% remain nomads.”

“As many as 2 million nomadic Kuchis wandered over Afghanistan in the years before the Soviet invasion, and most experts agreed that by 2000 the number had fallen dramatically, perhaps by half. The severe drought had destroyed 80% of the livestock in some areas.”

Niger experienced a serious food crisis in 2005 following erratic rainfall and desert locust invasions. Nomads such as the Tuareg and Fulani, who make up about 20% of Niger’s 12.9 million population, had been so badly hit by the Niger food crisis that their already fragile way of life is at risk. Nomads in Mali were also affected.”

“Peripatetic minorities” are mobile populations moving among settled populations offering a craft or trade.Each existing community is primarily endogamous, and subsists traditionally on a variety of commercial and/or service activities. Formerly, all or a majority of their members were itinerant, and this largely holds true today. Migration generally takes place within the political boundaries of a single state these days.”

“Each of the peripatetic communities is multilingual; it speaks one or more of the languages spoken by the local sedentary populations, and, additionally, within each group, a separate dialect or language is spoken. The latter are either of Indic or Iranian origin, and many are structured somewhat like an argot or secret language, with vocabularies drawn from various languages. There are indications that in northern Iran at least one community speaks Romani language, and some groups in Turkey also speak Romani.”

“A refugee is a person who is outside their home country because they have suffered (or feared) persecution on account of racereligionnationality, or political opinion; because they are a member of a persecuted social category of persons; or because they are fleeing a war. Such a person may be called an “asylum seeker” until recognized by the state where they make a claim.”

“In 2013, Afghanistan was the biggest source country of refugees (a position it has held for 32 years), with one out of every four refugees in the world being an Afghan and 95% of them living in Pakistanand Iran. The country hosting the largest number of refugees is now Syria, with 2.47 million refugees. Pakistan is second, hosting 1.6 million refugees.”

“Resettlement involves the assisted movement of refugees who are unable to return home to safe third countries. The UNHCR has traditionally seen resettlement as the least preferable of the “durable solutions” to refugee situations.”

“Resettlement involves a number of difficulties, most of them involving the often extreme cultural transition needed to adapt to life in the country of resettlement. For the many refugees going from rural undeveloped countries to life in urban centers, public transport, education, health care systems, job applications, and even grocery shopping can be difficult to navigate. Language barriers also frequently pose a problem. Even aside from material problems, resettled refugees can struggle with issues of identity and belonging, as societal integration can be very difficult in a completely different culture, and discrimination frequently further inhibits the process.

“The UN refugee agency reported on World Refugee Day that the number of refugees, asylum-seekers and internally displaced people worldwide has, for the first time in the post-World War II era, exceeded 50 million people.”

“UNHCR’s annual Global Trends report, which is based on data compiled by governments and non-governmental partner organizations, and from the organization’s own records, shows 51.2 million people were forcibly displaced at the end of 2013, fully 6 million more than the 45.2 million reported in 2012.”

“This massive increase was driven mainly by the war in Syria, which at the end of last year had forced 2.5 million people into becoming refugees and made 6.5 million internally displaced. Major new displacement was also seen in Africa  notably in Central African Republic and South Sudan.”

“”We are seeing here the immense costs of not ending wars, of failing to resolve or prevent conflict,” said UN High Commissioner for Refugees António Guterres. “Peace is today dangerously in deficit. Humanitarians can help as a palliative, but political solutions are vitally needed. Without this, the alarming levels of conflict and the mass suffering that is reflected in these figures will continue.””

“The worldwide total of 51.2 million forcibly displaced represents a huge number of people in need of help, with implications both for foreign aid budgets in the world’s donor nations and the absorption and hosting capacities of countries on the front lines of refugee crises.”

“”The international community has to overcome its differences and find solutions to the conflicts of today in South Sudan, Syria, Central African Republic and elsewhere. Non-traditional donors need to step up alongside traditional donors. As many people are forcibly displaced today as the entire populations of medium-to-Iarge countries such as Colombia or Spain, South Africa or South Korea,” said Guterres.”

“Displacement data in the annual report covers refugees, asylum-seekers and the internally displaced. Among these, refugee numbers amounted to 16.7 million people worldwide, 11.7 million of whom are under UNHCR’s care and the remainder registered with the UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine. These totals alone are the highest UNHCR has seen since 2001. In addition, more than half of the refugees under UNHCR’s care (6.3 million) had at end 2013 been in exile for more than five years.”

“Overall, the biggest refugee populations under UNHCR care and by source country are Afghans, Syrians and Somalis  together accounting for more than half of the global refugee total. Pakistan, Iran and Lebanon, meanwhile, hosted more refugees than other countries.”

“An Islamic state (Arabicالدولة الإسلامية‎ ad-dawlah al-islamīyah) is a type of government, in which the primary basis for government is Islamic religious law (sharia). From the early years of Islam, numerous governments have been founded as “Islamic”, beginning most notably with the caliphateestablished by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad and including subsequent governments ruled under the direction of a caliph (meaning “successor” to Muhammad).”

“However, the term “Islamic state” has taken on a more specific modern connotation since the 20th century. The concept of the modern Islamic state has been articulated and promoted by ideologues such as Abul A’la Maududi, Ayatollah Ruhollah KhomeiniIsrar Ahmed, and Sayyid Qutb. Like the earlier notion of the caliphate, the modern Islamic state is rooted in Islamic law. It is modeled after the rule of Muhammad. However, unlike caliph-led governments which were imperial despotisms or monarchies (Arabic: malik), a modern Islamic state can incorporate modern political institutions such as electionsparliamentary rule, judicial review, and popular sovereignty.(or so they say)”

“Today, many Muslim countries have incorporated Islamic law, wholly or in part, into their legal systems. Certain Muslim states have declared Islam to be their state religion in their constitutions, but do not apply Islamic law in their courts. Islamic states which are not Islamic monarchies are usually referred to as Islamic republics.”


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nomads
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refugee
http://www.unhcr.org/53a155bc6.html
https://sites.google.com/site/nccmn2x4/barbarians-influence-of-nomads-on-civilization
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eurasian_nomads
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nomadic_empire
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horse_archer
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eurasian_Steppe
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nomadic_pastoralism
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_state

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