Africa Despite All the Emerging Markets Opportunities Narrative has Still Tribal and Religious Genocides Generate Refugees and Epidemics – 09/19/2014

The Economic Development Propaganda Agencies for Africa may want to change their narrative about “Africa the Continent of Emerging Markets Opportunities”………;+)

So far it has only be, with very few and far between exceptions, the “test bed” of failed attempts at solutions to the tribal and religious sectarian genocides, refugee camps squalors and children and women sex exploitation and slavery….:+(

No wonder it is the cyclical launch base of epidemics and pandemics like Ebola and others through Africa endemic environment and resiliency to eradication…..:+(

When the West left “colonial” Africa in 1974, all the communists-leaning people were jubilant…….;+)

Forty (40) years later, this is the same “hated” West that comes back, at Africa’s request, to “save the day”..;+)

Of course, this is NOT “politically correct (PC)” to say to Africa that a “serious” review of its cultures and civilizations are in order, particularly its “genocidal hubris”where, maybe, as Africa is mostly “modern creativity and improvement deficient”, “plagiarism” of the West “Best Practices” and “reengineering remediation processes” could be very beneficial, as it has been suggested for the last forty (40) years, but, so far, has mostly been “wishful thinking”……..;+)

Africa is a continent of many regions with diverse populations speaking hundreds of different languages and practicing an array of cultures and religions. These differences have also been the source of much conflict since a millennia.”

Prior to being carved up by colonial powers, Africa was divided into a patchwork

of tribal structures and proto-states (historical kingdoms) with heterogeneous political

systems. Some areas were under forms of territorial control which resembled states.”

However, other areas were closer to being stateless, some with acephalous forms of

political organization.The mantra of colonialism in Africa was .indirect rule., an attempt to control the hinterland

by coopting traditional power structures into colonial administration .This ensured a degree of

continuity between the pre-colonial and post-colonial eras. That said, some traditional power

structures were weakened by colonialism while others were strengthened.The biggest impact on political geography was in the form of well-defined borders, initially

between the colonial powers and latterly between newly created independent states.”

The standard economic approach to political violence looks for factors that explain

the costs and benefits of using violence to achieve specific ends, particular in the form

of either remaining in power or mounting an insurgency.On this basis, four main hypotheses are frequently proposed to explain why Africa is

conflict prone: (i) natural resource dependence, (ii) weak and poorly functioning political institutions,

(ii) ethnic fragmentation and polarization and (ii) endemic poverty.”

Benefits from using violence are frequently couched in terms of capturing resources

either directly, as in the capture of territory, or through winning political power.

Since the use of violence is generally thought of as a last resort, civil wars are

usually rationalized in terms of commitment and/or information problems. The extent

of commitment power depends on the institutional structures in place.”

The way that citizens identify with the common good versus sectional interests could

also be important in shaping how institutions function to mitigate conflict risk.

In Africa, much emphasis is placed on ethnicity as the salient cleavage which leads

to polarization and conflict.”

Endemic poverty reduces the opportunity cost of fighting. When there is unem-

ployment and/or low wages it should theoretically make it easier for each side in a

conflict to recruit combatants.”

Conflict can affect development through a variety of

channels including incentives to invest in physical and human capital. It may also

affect incentives to invest in state capacities to support investments.”

One reaction of the findings could be to create a sense that much of

what we see is historically determined and hence not easily amenable to manipulation.

To the extent that there are headwinds in the face of progress which are due to historical

legacies, it is better to understand them than to ignore them.”

“Following World War II, nationalist movements arose across West Africa. In 1957, Ghana, under Kwame Nkrumah, became the first sub-Saharan colony to achieve its independence, followed the next year by France’s colonies (Guinea in 1958 under the leadership of President Ahmed Sekou Touré); by 1974, West Africa’s nations were entirely autonomous.”

“Since independence, many West African nations have been submerged under political instability, with notable civil wars in Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Ivory Coast, and a succession of military coups in Ghana and Burkina Faso.
Since the end of colonialism, the region has been the stage for some of the most brutal conflicts ever to erupt. Among the latter are:

http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49e484c66.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Africa
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_conflicts_in_Africa
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_history_of_Africa
http://www.econ.upf.edu/~reynal/lhc_BesleyReynalQuerol_131010_ALL.pdf

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