Der Medicus””The Physician”-Ibn Sina-Avicenna – 07/22/2014

The Physician (GermanDer Medicus) is a 2013 German adventure film based on the novel of the same name by Noah Gordon. The movie focuses on an orphan from 11th-century English town whose mother died of a mysterious illness. The boy vows to study medicine and decides to travel to Persia.

“The film premiered on 25 December 2013 in German theaters. It was an immediate box-office hit and earned the producers a Bogey Award for more than 1,000 visitors per copy on its opening weekend and 1 million visitors within ten days. It will also be released as a two-part mini-series for the German public TV ARD.”

“Ibn Sina (August c. 980 – June 1037), commonly known as Ibn Sīnā, or in Arabic writing Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Sīnā or by his Latinized name Avicenna, was a Persian polymath, who wrote almost 450 works on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived. In particular, 150 of his surviving works concentrate on philosophy and 40 of them concentrate on medicine.

“His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and The Canon of Medicine, which was a standard medical text at many medieval universities. The Canon of Medicine was used as a textbook in the universities of Montpellier and Leuven as late as 1650. Ibn Sīnā’s Canon of Medicine provides an overview of all aspects of medicine according to the principles of Galen (and Hippocrates).

“His corpus also includes writing on philosophyastronomyalchemygeologypsychologyIslamic theologylogic,mathematicsphysics, as well as poetry. He is regarded as the most famous and influential polymath of the Islamic Golden Age.”

“Avicenna created an extensive corpus of works during what is commonly known as the Islamic Golden Age, in which the translations of Greco-Roman, Persian, and Indian texts were studied extensively. Greco-Roman (Mid- and Neo-Platonic, andAristotelian) texts by the Kindi school were commented, redacted and developed substantially by Islamic intellectuals, who also built upon Persian and Indian mathematical systems, astronomyalgebratrigonometry and medicine.The Samanid dynasty in the eastern part of PersiaGreater Khorasan and Central Asia as well as the Buyid dynasty in the western part ofPersia and Iraq provided a thriving atmosphere for scholarly and cultural development. Under the Samanids, Bukhara rivaledBaghdad as a cultural capital of the Islamic world.
The study of the Quran and the Hadith thrived in such a scholarly atmosphere. Philosophy, Fiqh and theology (kalaam) were further developed, most noticeably by Avicenna and his opponents. Al-Razi and Al-Farabi had provided methodology and knowledge in medicine and philosophy. Avicenna had access to the great libraries of BalkhKhwarezmGorganReyIsfahanand Hamadan. Various texts (such as the ‘Ahd with Bahmanyar) show that he debated philosophical points with the greatest scholars of the time. Aruzi Samarqandi describes how before Avicenna left Khwarezm he had met Rayhan Biruni (a famous scientist and astronomer), Abu Nasr Iraqi (a renowned mathematician), Abu Sahl Masihi (a respected philosopher) and Abu al-Khayr Khammar (a great physician).”

As early as the 14th century when Dante Alighieri depicted him in Limbo alongside the virtuous non-Christian thinkers in hisDivine Comedy such as VirgilAverroesHomerHoraceOvidLucanSocratesPlato, and Saladin, Avicenna has been recognized by both East and West, as one of the great figures in intellectual history.
George Sarton, the author of The History of Science, described Ibn Sīnā as “one of the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history” and called him “the most famous scientist of Islam and one of the most famous of all races, places, and times.” He was one of the Islamic world’s leading writers in the field of medicine. Along with RhazesAbulcasisIbn al-Nafis, and al-Ibadi, Ibn Sīnā is considered an important compiler of early Muslim medicine. He is remembered in the Western history of medicine as a major historical figure who made important contributions to medicine and the European Renaissance. His medical texts were unusual in that where controversy existed between Galen and Aristotle’s views on medical matters (such as anatomy), he preferred to side with Aristotle, where necessary updating Aristotle’s position to take into account post-Aristotilian advances in anatomical knowledge.Aristotle’s dominant intellectual influence among medieval European scholars meant that Avicenna’s linking of Galen’s medical writings with Aristotle’s philosophical writings in the Canon of Medicine(along with its comprehensive and logical organisation of knowledge) significantly increased Avicenna’s importance in medieval Europe in comparison to other Islamic writers on medicine. His influence following translation of the Canon was such that from the early fourteenth to the mid-sixteenth centuries he was ranked with Hippocrates and Galen as one of the acknowledged authorities, princeps medicorum (prince of physicians).”

“In March 2008, it was announced that Avicenna’s name would be used for new Directories of education institutions for health care professionals, worldwide. The Avicenna Directories will list universities and schools where doctors, public health practitioners, pharmacists and others, are educated. The project team stated “Why Avicenna? Avicenna … was … noted for his synthesis of knowledge from both east and west. He has had a lasting influence on the development of medicine and health sciences. The use of Avicenna’s name symbolises the worldwide partnership that is needed for the promotion of health services of high quality.”


Let’s Not Forget Bhopal, India Lessons! Whatever, Union or No Union, an OSHA Update is Needed – 07/14/2014

“The Renosol workers have long had a theory about what is making them ill: A chemical called toluene diisocyanate, or TDI, which is used to make the foam in many car seats. According to decades of academic literature, isocyonates such as TDI, also used in paints, nail polish, and insulation, are among the leading causes of workplace-induced asthma. The company also uses an isocyanate called methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, or MDI.”

“When exposed to these chemicals, either through inhalation or touch, workers can become sensitized. “It’s like an allergic reaction,” explained James Lockey, M.D., an occupational health specialist at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. After sensitization, exposure to even trace amounts of TDI and MDI “can spur a decline in health, including serious asthma attacks,” he said, which can be disabling, even life threatening.”

“Medical professionals generally agree that one-time exposure to a large quantity of isocyanates or repeated exposure to lower levels of the chemicals can lead to sensitization and sometimes, permanent asthma. But leading experts—including top occupational health doctors and even the head of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration—say that federal health and safety laws regulating these chemicals are insufficient.”

““OSHA’s workplace exposure limits for many chemicals,” including isocyanates, “are out of date and not adequately protective,” David Michaels, assistant secretary of labor for Occupational Safety and Health, told NBC News. “The result is that many workers in U.S. workplaces are not adequately protected from chemical exposures.”
Under current OSHA standards, employers are not required to screen workers for illness, and can expose sensitized employees to low levels of isocyanates without violating any rules.”

“While some plants take steps to protect workers from TDI exposure and regularly screen them for health issues, employers are largely left to regulate themselves. But as parts suppliers such as Renosol become a larger part of the auto industry—currently they provide three of every four auto manufacturing jobs—workers are more vulnerable, say prominent occupational health doctors as well as government officials. Parts plants often operate under unyielding pressure from auto companies to produce at high volume and low cost, economists say. And because these plants are much less likely to be unionized than assembly plants run by major auto companies, experts say workers are left without a watchdog.”

“the Lear Corporation, the Michigan-based auto parts giant that owns the Renosol plant, said, “In response to recent employee concerns about chemical exposure (specifically TDI) at Lear’s Selma, Alabama, plant, the company has taken these employee concerns very seriously.” Lear said the company “completed exhaustive testing and evaluation,” and that based on “internal investigation, two separate independent environmental evaluations, as well as a thorough OSHA evaluation,” Lear “concluded that the environment in the Selma plant is safe for our employees.””
““In the case of our Selma plant, we are in the midst of an emotional union organizing campaign,” Lear added. “During such campaigns, there are often unsubstantiated allegations made.”

“NBC contacted Carrie Redlich, M.P.H., M.D., program director of Yale’s Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program, for comment on the Renosol workers’ claims. Redlich is among the nation’s leading experts on isocyanates and her clinic at Yale regularly treats workers who have had contact with the chemicals.”

“Redlich and a colleague, Adam Wiznewski, Ph.D., senior research scientist at Yale, offered to test any interested Renosol worker for isocyanate antibodies. The tests, which Wiznewski said he has run thousands of times, measure antibodies in a person’s blood to see if they’ve been exposed to TDI, and can help establish a connection between TDI exposure and related respiratory conditions.
NBC told several workers about the offer, and they contacted a number of their coworkers. Redlich’s Yale clinic sent nine blood sample kits to Selma, and workers brought the kits to local doctors and labs, who then mailed the samples to Yale.”

“So far, the lab has tested six Renosol workers’ blood, and reports that four showed evidence of exposure to TDI. One more showed a low level of exposure consistent with very low level contact or exposure years earlier.
“This is a high frequency of exposure, and it’s cause for concern,” said Adam Wiznewski, Ph.D., senior research scientist at Yale. He said that the workers may not be representative of the rest of the Renosol’s 90-person hourly workforce, but that exposure in even four workers indicates a problem. “The company definitely needs to be looking at its industrial hygiene, and they probably need to look into personal protective equipment for workers, and medical surveillance of health issues.”

“In answer to NBC’s questions about the tests, a Lear spokesperson said, “We’re concerned about why they’d come forward and make an allegation to you. We’re a major global operator; we don’t run shoddy operations.” The Lear spokesperson added that the company maintains a clear process for workers to make complaints. He said no Renosol worker has come forward with a TDI-related grievance, with the exception of one failed workers’ compensation claim several years ago.”

“Though TDI tests cannot be the basis for a diagnosis of isocyanate asthma, Redlich and Wiznewski say that in symptomatic patients, they can be a vital piece of a diagnostic puzzle if combined with medical examination, analysis of symptoms and review of a worker’s occupational history.”

Methyl isocyanate was the causative agent in the Bhopal Disaster that killed thousands of people. Isocyanates are potentially dangerous irritants to the eyes and respiratory tract, despite their relatively low acute toxicities. LD50‘s are typically several hundred milligrams per kilogram. Polyurethanes have variablecuring times, and the presence of free isocyanates in foams vary accordingly.

“All major producers of MDI and TDI are members of the International Isocyanate Institute, whose aim is the promotion of the safe handling of MDI and TDI.”

“Isocyanates are associated with increased risk of non-small cell lung cancer in particular squamous cell.”

“Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is extremely toxic. The threshold limit value set by the American Conference on Government Industrial Hygienists is 0.02 ppm. MIC is toxic by inhalation, ingestion and contact in quantities as low as 0.4 ppm. Exposure symptoms includes coughing, chest pain, dyspneaasthma, irritation of the eyes,nose and throat, as well as skin damage. Higher levels of exposure, over 21 ppm, can result in pulmonary or lung edemaemphysema and hemorrhages, bronchial pneumonia and death. Although the odor of methyl isocyanate cannot be detected at 5 ppm by most people, its potent lachrymal properties provide an excellent warning of its presence (at a concentration of 2–4 parts per million (ppm) subject’s eyes are irritated, while at 21 ppm, subjects could not tolerate the presence of methyl isocyanate in air).

“Proper care must be taken to store methyl isocyanate because of its ease of exothermically polymerizing (see Reactions) and its similar sensitivity to water. Only stainless steel or glass containers may be safely used; the MIC must be stored at temperatures below 40 °C (104 °F) and preferably at 4 °C (39 °F).”

“The toxic effect of the compound was apparent in the Bhopal disaster, when around 42,000 kilograms (93,000 lb) of methyl isocyanate and other gases were released from the underground reservoirs of theUnion Carbide India Limited (UCIL) factory, over a populated area on December 3, 1984, immediately killing thousands and leading to the deaths of tens of thousands in subsequent weeks and months.”

“In 1970 UCIL built a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, which gained worldwide attention as a result of theBhopal disaster. On December 3, 1984, a release of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas immediately killed about three thousand people and lead to the death of more than fifteen thousand in subsequent weeks and months. The death rate is currently about 2 or 3 people per week.”

Destiny or Free Will, Preeminence of Nature Versus Nurture, The Worldwide Economic and Consequently Unemployment Crises & the Worldwide “Education” Chaos – 07/13/2014

“Scholarly and popular discussion about nature and nurture relates to the relative importance of an individual’s innate qualities (“nature” in the sense of nativism or innatism) as compared to an individual’s personal experiences (“nurture” in the sense of empiricism or behaviorism) in causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits.”

“The phrase “nature and nurture” in its modern sense was coined by the English Victorian polymath Francis Galton in discussion of the influence of heredity and environment on social advancement, although the terms had been contrasted previously, for example by Shakespeare (in his play, The Tempest: 4.1). Galton was influenced by the book On the Origin of Species written by his half-cousin, Charles Darwin. The concept embodied in the phrase has been criticized for its binary simplification of two tightly interwoven parameters, as for example an environment of wealth, education, and social privilege are often historically passed to genetic offspring, even though wealth, education, and social privilege are not part of the human biological system, and so cannot be directly attributed to genetics.”

“The view that humans acquire all or almost all their behavioral traits from “nurture” was termed tabula rasa(“blank slate”) by philosopher John Locke. The blank slate view proposes that humans develop only from environmental influences. This question was once considered to be an appropriate division of developmental influences, but since both types of factors are known to play interacting roles in development, most modern psychologists and other scholars of human development consider the question naive—representing an outdated state of knowledge.”

“One may also refer to the concepts of innatism and empiricism as genetic determinism andenvironmentalism respectively. These two conflicting approaches have influenced research agendas for a century. While genetic determinism holds that the development is primarily influenced by the genetic code of a person, environmentalism emphasises the influence of experiences and social factors. In the twenty-first century, a consensus is developing that both genetic and environmental agents influence development interactively.

“In the social and political sciences, the nature versus nurture debate may be contrasted with the structure versus agency debate (that is, socialization versus individual autonomy). For a discussion of nature versus nurture in language and other human universals, see also psychological nativism.”

“In their 2014 survey of scientists, many respondents wrote that the familiar distinction between nature and nurture has outlived its usefulness, and should be retired. One reason is the explosion of work in the field ofepigenetics. Scientists believe that there is a long and circuitous route, with many feedback loops, from a particular set of genes to a feature of the adult organism. Culture is a biological phenomenon: a set of abilities and practices that allow members of one generation to learn and change and to pass the results of that learning on to the next generation.”

“Epigenetics is the study of changes in the expression of genes caused by certain base pairs in DNA, or RNA, being “turned off” or “turned on” again, through chemical reactions. In biology, and specifically genetics, epigenetics is mostly the study of heritable genetic changes that are not caused by changes in the DNAsequence; to a lesser extent it also can be used to describe the study of stable, long-term alterations in thetranscriptional potential of a cell that are not necessarily heritable. Unlike simple genetics based on changes to the DNA sequence (the genotype), the changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype of epigenetics have other causes, thus use of the term epi- (Greek: επί– over, outside of, around) genetics.

“The term also refers to the changes themselves: functionally relevant changes to the genome that do not involve a change in the nucleotide sequence. Examples of mechanisms that produce such changes are DNA methylation and histone modification, each of which alters how genes are expressed without altering the underlying DNA sequence. Gene expression can be controlled through the action of repressor proteins that attach to silencer regions of the DNA. These epigenetic changes may last through cell divisions for the duration of the cell’s life, and may also last for multiple generations even though they do not involve changes in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism; instead, non-genetic factors cause the organism’s genes to behave (or “express themselves”) differently. (There are objections to the use of the term epigenetic to describe chemical modification of histone, since it remains unclear whether or not histone modifications are heritable.)

“One example of an epigenetic change in eukaryotic biology is the process of cellular differentiation. Duringmorphogenesistotipotent stem cells become the various pluripotent cell lines of the embryo, which in turn become fully differentiated cells. In other words, as a single fertilized egg cell – the zygote – continues todivide, the resulting daughter cells change into all the different cell types in an organism, including neurons,muscle cellsepitheliumendothelium of blood vessels, etc., by activating some genes while inhibiting the expression of others.

“In 2011, it was demonstrated that the methylation of mRNA plays a critical role in human energy homeostasis. The obesity-associated FTO gene is shown to be able to demethylate N6-methyladenosine in RNA. This discovery launched the subfield of RNA epigenetics.

Epigenetics can impact evolution when epigenetic changes are heritable. A sequestered germ line or Weismann barrier is specific to animals, and epigenetic inheritance is more common in plants and microbes. Eva Jablonka and Marion Lamb have argued that these effects may require enhancements to the standard conceptual framework of the modern evolutionary synthesis. Other evolutionary biologists have incorporated epigenetic inheritance into population genetics models or are openly skeptical.”

“Two important ways in which epigenetic inheritance can be different from traditional genetic inheritance, with important consequences for evolution, are that rates of epimutation can be much faster than rates of mutation and the epimutations are more easily reversible. An epigenetically inherited element such as the PSI+ system can act as a “stop-gap”, good enough for short-term adaptation that allows the lineage to survive for long enough for mutation and/or recombination togenetically assimilate the adaptive phenotypic change. The existence of this possibility increases the evolvability of a species.”

“In the Överkalix study, Marcus Pembrey and colleagues observed that the paternal (but not maternal) grandsons of Swedish men who were exposed during preadolescence to famine in the 19th century were less likely to die of cardiovascular disease. If food was plentiful, then diabetes mortality in the grandchildren increased, suggesting that this was a transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. The opposite effect was observed for females—the paternal (but not maternal) granddaughters of women who experienced famine while in the womb (and therefore while their eggs were being formed) lived shorter lives on average.

“In 2008, the National Institutes of Health announced that $190 million had been earmarked for epigenetics research over the next five years. In announcing the funding, government officials noted that epigenetics has the potential to explain mechanisms of aging, human development, and the origins of cancer, heart disease, mental illness, as well as several other conditions. Some investigators, like Randy Jirtle, PhD, of Duke University Medical Center, think epigenetics may ultimately turn out to have a greater role in disease than genetics.”

“Philosophical questions regarding nature and nurture include the question of the nature of the trait itself, questions of determinism, and whether the question is well posed.”

“As well as asking if a trait such as IQ is heritable, one can ask what it is about “intelligence” that is being inherited. Similarly, if in a broad set of environments genes account for almost all observed variation in a trait then this raises the notion ofgenetic determinism and or biological determinism, and the level of analysis which is appropriate for the trait. Finally, as early as 1951, Calvin Hall suggested that discussion opposing nature and nurture was fruitless. Environments may be able to be varied in ways that affect development: This would alter the heritability of the character changes, too. Conversely, if the genetic composition of a population changes, then heritability may also change.”

“The example of phenylketonuria (PKU) is informative. Untreated, this is a completely penetrant genetic disorder causing brain damage and progressive mental retardation. PKU can be treated by the elimination of phenylalanine from the diet. Hence, a character (PKU) that used to have a virtually perfect heritability is not heritable any more if modern medicine is available (the actual allele causing PKU would still be inherited, but the phenotype PKU would not be expressed anymore). It is useful then to think of what is inherited as a mechanism for breaking down phenylalanine. Separately from this we can consider whether the organism has other mechanisms (for instance a drug that breakdown this amino acid) or does not need the mechanism (due to dietary exclusion).
Similarly, within, say, an inbred strain of mice, no genetic variation is present and every character will have a zero heritability. If the complications of gene–environment interactions and correlations (see above) are added, then it appears to many thatheritability, the epitome of the nature–nurture opposition, is “a station passed.”

“A related concept is the view that the idea that either nature or nurture explains a creature’s behavior is an example of thesingle cause fallacy.”

“Some believe that evolutionary explanations describes factors which limit our free will, in that it can be seen to imply that we behave in ways in which we are ‘naturally inclined’. J. Mizzoni wrote “There are some moral philosophers (such asThomas Nagel) who believe that evolutionary considerations are irrelevant to a full understanding of the foundations of ethics. Other moral philosophers (such as J. L. Mackie) tell quite a different story. They hold that the admission of the evolutionary origins of human beings compels us to concede that there are no foundations for ethics.

“Critics of this ethical view point out that whether or not a behavioral trait is inherited does not affect whether it can be changed by one’s culture or independent choice, and that evolutionary inclinations could be discarded in ethical and political discussions regardless of whether they exist or not.”

“Leda Cosmides and John Tooby noted that William James (1842–1910) argued that humans have more “instincts” than animals, and that greater freedom of action is the result of having more psychological instincts, not fewer. Daniel C. Dennettexplores this idea in his 2003 book Freedom Evolves.”

UAC a Mole” and “US Hhs/ORRors” Put on “ICE” to Experience at Home the Worldwide “UNHCR”, “Feet of Clay” of “the New Colossus”??? – 07/10/2014

“”The New Colossus” is a sonnet by American poet Emma Lazarus (1849–87), written in 1883. In 1903, the poem was engraved on a bronze plaque and mounted inside the lower level of the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty.”

“Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
“Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries she
With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”  ”

“The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), also known as the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations agency mandated to protect and support refugees at the request of a government or the UN itself and assists in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country. Its headquarters are in GenevaSwitzerland and is a member of the United Nations Development Group. The UNHCR has won two Nobel Peace Prizes, once in 1954 and again in 1981.

“Feet of clay is a reference to the interpretation of the dream of Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, by the prophet Daniel as recounted in the Book of Daniel:

Thou, O king, sawest, and behold a great image. This great image, whose brightness was excellent, stood before thee; and the form thereof was terrible.
This image’s head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass,
His legs of iron, his feet part of iron and part of clay. (
Daniel 2:31-33)

And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters’ clay, and part of iron, the kingdom shall be divided; but there shall be in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch as thou sawest the iron mixed with miry clay.
And as the toes of the feet were part of iron, and part of clay, so the kingdom shall be partly strong, and partly broken.
And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay. (
Daniel 2:41-43)

The analogy is now commonly used to refer to a weakness or character flaw, especially in people of prominence.

Happy Friday, July 4th, 2014 USA!!! – 07/04/2014

Happy Friday, July 4th, 2014!!!  ;+)

What a day!  ;+)

From an “Arthurian Graal Quest” of a “round table knight” hurricane in North Carolina and the Dow closing above 17000 for the first time ever, in the East, to riots against parentless Central America children illegal immigration in the South and the West, to not-so-ok OK fracking drill water quakes and to new China SCO/CICA overseas challenges in the Middle East and Asia, welcome to new “interesting times”…….;+)

The End of “the Age of Innocence” in Social Networks? – 06/30/2014

Why would you trust them in the first place, if you read their “Terms and Conditions”, albeit in small print…..?????  ;+)

“In January 2012, Facebook tweaked news feeds to show statuses that were particularly positive or negative and found that the emotions of others can affect your mood. The findings were published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in an article called “Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks.” “

“Researchers did not inform users that the manipulation of the news feeds would be taking place, however, Facebook’s action is legal due to terms laid out in the user agreement when a person signs up for the site.”

The “Khenti-Amentiu” “Land of the Dead” West, May Well Be the “Set” to this “Aset/Iset/Isis” Mythic Dream Try at Reality From Osiris, Isis, Horus, Set and Anubis to the New I.S.I.S. “Caliphate” – 06/30/2014

“Sunni insurgent group Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) declared themselves a caliphate and dropped “al-Sham” from their title, according to a statement delivered by their spokesman.”
“Isis is a goddess in Ancient Egyptian religious beliefs, whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world. She was worshipped as the ideal mother and wife as well as the patroness of nature and magic. She was the friend of slavessinnersartisans and the downtrodden, but she also listened to the prayers of the wealthy, maidens, aristocrats and rulers. Isis is often depicted as the mother of Horus, the hawk-headed god of war and protection (although in some traditions Horus’s mother was Hathor). Isis is also known as protector of the dead and goddess of children.”
“The name Isis means “Throne”. Her headdress is a throne. As the personification of the throne, she was an important representation of the pharaoh’s power. The pharaoh was depicted as her child, who sat on the throne she provided. Her cult was popular throughout Egypt, but her most important temples were at Behbeit El-Hagar in the Nile delta, and, beginning in the reign with Nectanebo I (380–362 BCE), on the island of Philae in Upper Egypt.”
“In the typical form of her myth, Isis was the first daughter of Geb, god of the Earth, and Nut, goddess of the Sky, and she was born on the fourth intercalary day. She married her brother, Osiris, and she conceived Horus with him. Isis was instrumental in the resurrection of Osiris when he was murdered by Set. Using her magical skills, she restored his body to life after having gathered the body parts that had been strewn about the earth by Set.
“This myth became very important during the Greco-Roman period. For example it was believed that the Nile River flooded every year because of the tears of sorrow which Isis wept for Osiris. Osiris’s death and rebirth was relived each year through rituals. The worship of Isis eventually spread throughout the Greco-Roman world, continuing until the suppression of paganism in the Christian era. The popular motif of Isis suckling her son Horus, however, lived on in a Christianized context as the popular image of Mary suckling the infant sonJesus from the fifth century onward.
“Osiris, is an Egyptian god, usually identified as the god of the afterlife, the underworld and the dead. He was classically depicted as a green-skinned man with a pharaoh’s beard, partially mummy-wrapped at the legs, wearing a distinctive crown with two large ostrich feathers at either side, and holding a symbolic crook and flail.”
“Osiris was at times considered the oldest son of the Earth god Geb, and the sky goddess Nut, as well as being brother and husband of Isis, with Horus being considered his posthumously begotten son. He was also associated with the epithet Khenti-Amentiu, which means “Foremost of the Westerners” — a reference to his kingship in the land of the dead. As ruler of the dead, Osiris was also sometimes called “king of the living“, since the Ancient Egyptians considered the blessed dead “the living ones“. Osiris was considered the brother of Isis, Set, Nephthys, Horus the Elder and father of Horus the younger. Osiris is first attested in the middle of the Fifth dynasty of Egypt, although it is likely that he was worshipped much earlier; the term Khenti-Amentiu dates to at least the first dynasty, also as a pharaonic title. Most information available on the myths of Osiris is derived from allusions contained in the Pyramid Texts at the end of the Fifth Dynasty, later New Kingdom source documents such as the Shabaka Stone and the Contending of Horus and Seth, and much later, in narrative style from the writings of Greek authors including Plutarch and Diodorus Siculus.”
“Osiris was considered not only a merciful judge of the dead in the afterlife, but also the underworld agency that granted all life, including sprouting vegetation and the fertile flooding of the Nile River. He was described as the “Lord of love“, “He Who is Permanently Benign and Youthful” and the “Lord of Silence”. The Kings of Egypt were associated with Osiris in death — as Osiris rose from the dead they would, in union with him, inherit eternal life through a process of imitative magic. By the New Kingdom all people, not just pharaohs, were believed to be associated with Osiris at death, if they incurred the costs of the assimilation rituals.”
“Through the hope of new life after death, Osiris began to be associated with the cycles observed in nature, in particular vegetation and the annual flooding of the Nile, through his links with the heliacal rising of Orion and Sirius at the start of the new year. Osiris was widely worshipped as Lord of the Dead until the suppression of the Egyptian religion during the Christian era.”
“Set is a god of the desertstorms, disorder, violence and foreigners in ancient Egyptian religion. In Ancient Greek, the god’s name is given as Sēth (Σήθ). Set is not, however, a god to be ignored or avoided; he has a positive role where he is employed by Ra on his solar boat to repel the serpent of Chaos Apep. Set had a vital role as a reconciled combatant. He was lord of the red (desert) land where he was the balance to Horus’ role as lord of the black (soil) land.”
“In Egyptian mythology, Set is portrayed as the usurper who killed and mutilated his own brother Osiris. Osiris’ wife Isisreassembled Osiris’ corpse and resurrected him long enough to conceive his son and heir Horus. Horus sought revenge upon Set, and the myths describe their conflicts. The death of Osiris and the battle between Horus and Set is a popular theme in Egyptian mythology.”
“Khenti-Amentiu, also Khentiamentiu, Khenti-Amenti, Kenti-Amentiu and many other spellings, is an ancient Egyptian deitywhose name was also used as a title for Osiris and Anubis. The name means “Foremost of the Westerners” or “Chief or the Westerners”, where “Westerners” refers to the dead.”
Anubis is the Greek name of a jackal-headed god associated with mummification and the afterlife in ancient Egyptian religion.”
“Like many ancient Egyptian deities, Anubis assumed different roles in various contexts. Depicted as a protector of graves as early as the First Dynasty (c. 3100 – c. 2890 BC), Anubis was also an embalmer. By the Middle Kingdom (c. 2055 – 1650 BC), Anubis was replaced by Osiris in his role as Lord of the underworld. One of his prominent roles was as a god who ushered souls into the afterlife. He attended the weighing scale during the “Weighing of the Heart,” in which it was determined whether a soul would be allowed to enter the realm of the dead. Despite being one of the most ancient and “one of the most frequently depicted and mentioned gods” in the Egyptian pantheon, however, Anubis played almost no role in Egyptian myths.”
“Anubis was depicted in black, a color that symbolized both rebirth and the discoloration of the corpse after embalming. Anubis is associated with Wepwawet (also called Upuaut), another Egyptian god portrayed with a dog’s head or in canine form, but with grey or white fur. Historians assume that the two figures were eventually combined. Anubis’ female counterpart is Anput. His daughter is the serpent goddess Kebechet.”