The New Attempts to Return the “Caliphate” and/or the “Mahdi” Global Era – 06-14-14

In this “Reverse Reconquista” Era, maybe, the “real” “survival” languages are NOT Chinese and Russian, BUT Arabic and Farsi…….;+)

“The caliph was often known as Amir al-Mu’minin (Arabicأمير المؤمنين‎ “Commander of the Believers”). Muhammad established his capital in Medina; after he died, it remained the capital during the Rashidunperiod, before Al-Kufa was reportedly made the capital by Caliph `Ali ibn Abi Talib. At times in Muslim historythere have been rival claimant caliphs in different parts of the Islamic world, and divisions between the Shi’a and Sunni communities.”

“According to Sunni Muslims, the first caliph to be called Amir al-Mu’minin was Abu Bakr Siddique, followed by `Umar ibn al-Khattāb, the second of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs. `Uthman ibn Affan and `Ali ibn Abi Talib also were called by the same title, while the Shi’a consider Ali to have been the only truly legitimate caliph, of these four men.

“After the first four caliphs, the Caliphate was claimed by dynasties such as the Umayyads, the Abbasids, and the Ottomans, and for relatively short periods by other, competing dynasties in al-AndalusNorth Africa, andEgypt. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk officially abolished the system of Caliphate in Islam (the Ottoman Empire) and founded the Republic of Turkey, in 1923. The Kings of Moroccostill label themselves with the title Amir al-Mu’minin for the Moroccans, but lay no claim to the Caliphate.”

“Some Muslim countries, including SomaliaIndonesia and Malaysia, were never subject to the authority of a Caliphate, with the exception of Aceh, which briefly acknowledged Ottoman suzerainty. Consequently these countries had their own, local, sultans or rulers who did not fully accept the authority of the Caliph.”

“Contrasting to Sunnism, where certainty in the Mahdi, although it existed, never developed into a vital article of the faith, in Shiʿism overall, and Twelver Imamism specifically, it is a constitutive doctrine of Shiite spiritual dogma, its dualist image of the world and more exactly his return marks the commencement of the “place of return” or the henceforth. Throughout Islamic history, Imami panegyric as well as hagiographic works devoted to the Hidden Imam tried hard to validate that the figure of the Mahdi, contemporary in Sunni hadith, mentioned to the twelfth Imam Imami urgings increased drive through the 13th century when certain great Sunni intellectuals subsidized their sustenance to the Imami doctrine of categorizing the Mahdi with the twelfth Imam:. “the two Syrian Shafiʿite scholars Moḥammad b. Yusof Ganji in his Bayān fi aḵbār ṣāḥeb al-zamān, composed in 1250-51, and Kamāl-al-Din Moḥammad ʿAdawi Naṣibini in his Maṭāleb al-soʾul, completed in 1252, and the renowned Sebṭ Ebn al-Jawzi in his Taḏkerat al-ḵawāṣṣ. Given the dates of these authors and their works, coinciding with the arrival of the Mongols, the end of Sunni caliphal power and the increasing political influence of the Imamis, one wonders if this doctrinal reversal was not dictated by a certain opportunism. One might note in this respect that Moḥammad b. Yusof Ganji was assassinated in Damascus in 1260 for having collaborated with the Mongol conquerors. In any case, it is from this period onward that one notices, from time to time, some learned Sunnis rallying to Imami Mahdism.” . The sensation is also manifest among Sunni sages. Already in the 11th century, Abu Bakr Bayhaqi had criticized the agreement of some Sufis regarding the documentation of the Mahdi with the last Imam of the Twelvers . Setting apart the effect of Imamism upon the eschatological hagiology of Ebn al-ʿArabi one can quote the devotee of the latter, Saʿd-al-Din Ḥammuya in his Farāʾed al-semṭayn, the Egyptian ʿAbd-al-Wahhāb Šaʿrāni in al-Yawāqit wa’l-jawāher or, more newly, the Naqšbandi master from Balkh, Solaymān Qonduzi in his Yanābiʾ al-mawadda .”

“In Shia Islam “the Mahdi symbol has developed into a powerful and central religious idea.” Twelver Shi`i Muslims believe that the Mahdi is the son of Narjis, and is the Twelfth Imam, who was born in 869 and washidden by God at the age of five (874). He is still alive but has been in occultation, “awaiting the time that God has decreed for his return,” When it comes he promised that no one who wanted happiness would be denied and no one who had believed will be left behind.”


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