For Your Entertainment (FYE) ;+)
The Follow Up Concept(s) to Daniel Pink “Conceptual Era” (2005)……….
“Conceptual thinking habits:
Strong opinion and belief about ideas.
Defending and going beyond the trouble to prove your ideas or thoughts as correct.
Is not easily swayed by society — chooses to do things out of will, not out of popularity.
Believes in the independent individual.
The average person does not have nearly the amount of questions and deep thoughts that appear in a conceptual thinker’s mind. The average person is bored with concepts, ideas, and philosophies while a conceptual thinker becomes fascinated.”
“If you consider yourself a perfectionist, entrepreneur, or philosopher, you are most likely a conceptual thinker.”
“The imagination age is a concept that states that the economy and culture of advanced economies is moving beyond the information age in to an age where creativity and imagination over analysis and thinking will become the primary creators of economic value. Imagination, over Information is seen as the new key activity of the economy and culture. The concept holds that technologies like virtual reality, user created content and YouTube will change the way humans interact with each other and how they create economic and social structures. A key concept is that the rise of the immersive virtual reality, the cyberspace or the metaverse will raise the value of imagination work of designers, artists, video makers and actors over rational thinking as a foundation of culture and economics.”
“The term imagination age was first introduced as a cultural and economic philosophy by artist, writer and cultural philosopher Rita J. King in her November 2007 essay for the British Council, “The Emergence of a New Global Culture in the Imagination Age” where she began using the phrase, “Toward a New Global Culture and Economy in the Imagination Age”. King further refined the development of her thinking in a 2008 Paris essay entitled, “Our Vision for Sustainable Culture in the Imagination Age” in which she states,
Active participants in the Imagination Age are becoming cultural ambassadors by introducing virtual strangers to unfamiliar customs, costumes, traditions, rituals and beliefs, which humanizes foreign cultures, contributes to a sense of belonging to one’s own culture and fosters an interdependent perspective on sharing the riches of all systems. Cultural transformation is a constant process, and the challenges of modernization can threaten identity, which leads to unrest and eventually, if left unchecked, to violent conflict. Under such conditions it is tempting to impose homogeneity, which undermines the highly specific systems that encompass the myriad luminosity of the human experience.
Rita J. King has expanded her interpretation of the Imagination Age concept through speeches at the O’Reilly Media, TED, Cusp, and Business Innovation Factory conferences. King also edits “The Imagination Age” blog.
The term imagination age was subsequently popularized in techno-cultural discourse by other writers, futurists and technologists, who attributed the term to Rita J. King, including Jason Silva and Tish Shute a technology entrepreneur and publisher of Augmented Reality and emerging technology blog “UgoTrade”.
Earlier, one-time, references to the imagination age can be found attributed to Carl W. Olson in his 2001 book “The Boss is Dead…: Leadership Breakthroughs for the Imagination Age” ISBN 0-7596-1576-4″ virtual worlds developer Howard Stearns in 2005 and Cathilea Robinett in 2007.”
“The imagination age would be a society and culture dominated by an imagination economy. The idea relies on a key Marxist concept that culture is a super-structure fully conditioned by the economic substructure. According to Marxist thinking certain kinds of culture and art were made possible by the adoption of farming technology. Then with the rise of industry new forms of political organization (democracy, militarism, fascism, communism) were made possible along with new forms of culture (mass media, news papers, films). These resulted in people changing. In the case of industrialization people were trained to become more literate, to follow time routines, to like in urban communities.
The concept of the imagination age extends this to a new order emerging presently.
An imagination economy is defined by some thinkers as an economy where intuitive and creative thinking create economic value, after logical and rational thinking has been outsourced to other economies.
Michael Cox Chief Economist at Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas argues that economic trends show a shift away from information sector employment and job growth towards creative jobs. Jobs in publishing, he has pointed out are declining while jobs for designers, architects, actors & directors, software engineers and photographers are all growing. This shift in job creation is a sign the beginning of the Imagination Age. The 21st century has seen a growth in games and interactive media jobs.
Cox argues that the skills can be viewed as a “hierarchy of human talents”, with raw physical effort as the lowest form of value creation, above this skilled labor and information entry to creative reasoning and emotional intelligence. Each layer provides more value creation than the skills below it, and the outcome of globalization and automation is that labor is made available for higher levels skills that create more value. Presently theses skills are tending to be around imagination, social and emotional intelligence, and imagination.”
“Key to the idea that imagination is becoming the key commodity of our time is a confidence that Virtual Reality technology, like Second Life will emerge to take much of the place of the current text and graphic dominated Internet. This will provide a 3-D Internet where imagination and creativity over information and search will be key talents to creating user experience and value.
The concept is not limited to just virtual reality. Charlie Magee states that the technology that will develop during the imagination age would include:
The best bet is on a hybrid breakthrough created by the meshing of nanotechnology, computer science (including artificial intelligence), biotechnology (including biochemistry, biopsychology, etc.), and virtual reality.In The Singularity is Near Raymond Kurzweil states that future combination of AI, nano-technology, and biotechnology will create a world where anything that can be imagined will be possible, raising the importance of imagination as the key mode of human thinking.”
“Imagination Age as a philosophical tenet heralding a new wave of cultural and economic innovation appears to have been first introduced by Rita J. King in a 2008 collection of essays for the British Council entitled, “The Emergence of a New Global Culture in the Imagination Age” Says King,
“Rather than exist as an unwitting victim of circumstance, all too often unaware of the impact of having been born in a certain place at a certain time, to parents firmly nestled within particular values and socioeconomic brackets, millions of people are creating new virtual identities and meaningful relationships with others who would have remained strangers, each isolated within their respective realities.”
“Second Life is an online virtual world developed by Linden Lab. It was launched on June 23, 2003. A number of free client programs, or Viewers, enable Second Life users, called Residents, to interact with each other through avatars. Residents can explore the world (known as the grid), meet other residents, socialize, participate in individual and group activities, and create and trade virtual property and services with one another. Second Life is intended for people aged 16 and over. The game reached its top popularity in the mid-to-late 2000s,when major pop-rock acts (Duran Duran, Depeche Mode), politician and showbiz personalities made virtual appearances, concerts and public speeches on Second Life, but it has since declined, as other competing clients have appeared mimicking SL appearance and setup.
Built into the software is a three-dimensional modeling tool based on simple geometric shapes that allows residents to build virtual objects. There is also a procedural scripting language, Linden Scripting Language, which can be used to add interactivity to objects. Although sculpted prims (sculpties), mesh, textures for clothing or other objects, and animations and gestures can be created using external software and imported, all such options require extensive programming skills making Second Life a complex game, best experienced by people with beyond-average computer gaming knowledge. The Second Life Terms of Service provide that users retain copyright for any content they create, and the server and client provide simple digital rights management functions.”
“”The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology ” is a 2005 update of Raymond Kurzweil’s 1999 book, The Age of Spiritual Machines and his 1990 book The Age of Intelligent Machines. In it, as in the two previous versions, Kurzweil attempts to give a glimpse of what awaits us in the near future. He proposes a coming technological singularity, and how we would thus be able to augment our bodies and minds with technology. He describes the singularity as resulting from a combination of three important technologies of the 21st century: genetics, nanotechnology, and robotics (including artificial intelligence).
Four central postulates of the book are as follows:
A technological-evolutionary point known as “the singularity” exists as an achievable goal for humanity.
Through a law of accelerating returns, technology is progressing toward the singularity at an exponential rate.
The functionality of the human brain is quantifiable in terms of technology that we can build in the near future.
Medical advancements make it possible for a significant number of his generation (Baby Boomers) to live long enough for the exponential growth of technology to intersect and surpass the processing of the human brain.”
“Isaac Asimov born Isaak Yudovich Ozimov, Russian c. January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American author and professor of biochemistry at Boston University, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. Asimov was one of the most prolific writers of all time, having written or edited more than 500 books and an estimated 90,000 letters and postcards. His works have been published in all ten major categories of the Dewey Decimal System (although his only work in the 100s—which covers philosophy and psychology—was a foreword for The Humanist Way).”
“Asimov is widely considered a master of hard science fiction and, along with Robert A. Heinlein and Arthur C. Clarke, he was considered one of the “Big Three” science fiction writers during his lifetime.Asimov’s most famous work is the Foundation Series; his other major series are the Galactic Empire series and the Robot series, both of which he later tied into the same fictional universe as the Foundation Series to create a unified “future history” for his stories much like those pioneered by Robert A. Heinlein and previously produced by Cordwainer Smith and Poul Anderson.”
“He wrote many short stories, among them “Nightfall”, which in 1964 was voted by the Science Fiction Writers of America the best short science fiction story of all time. Asimov wrote the Lucky Starr series of juvenile science-fiction novels using the pen name Paul French.”
“The first screen adaptation of an Asimov robot stories was the third episode of the British television series Out of This World based on “Little Lost Robot” (1962). Dramatised by Leo Lehman and starring Maxine Audley as Susan Calvin, this is the only episode of the series known to have survived.
This was followed by a 1964 dramatision of The Caves of Steel for the BBC series Story Parade and then four episodes of the BBC television series Out of the Unknown, based on “Satisfaction Guaranteed” (1966), “Reason (in an episode titled “The Prophet”, 1967), “Liar!” (1969), and The Naked Sun (1969). In these adaptations, Elijah Baley was portrayed by Peter Cushing (The Caves of Steel) and Paul Maxwell (The Naked Sun), R. Daneel Olivaw by John Carson (The Caves of Steel) and David Collings (The Naked Sun), and Susan Calvin by Beatrix Lehmann (“The Prophet”) and Wendy Gifford (“Liar!”). In “Satisfaction Guaranteed”, the character of Susan Calvin was renamed Dr Inge Jensen and portrayed by Ann Firbank.
In the late 1970s, Harlan Ellison wrote a screenplay based on Asimov’s book I, Robot for Warner Bros.. This film project was ultimately abandoned, but Ellison’s script was later published in book form as I, Robot: The Illustrated Screenplay (1994).
Robots, a 1988 television film based on Asimov’s Robot Series, starred Stephen Rowe as Elijah Baley and Brent Barrett as R. Daneel Olivaw.
Bicentennial Man (1999) was the first theatrical movie adaptation of an Asimov story or novel, based on both Asimov’s original short story and its novel expansion The Positronic Man. The film starred Robin Williams as robot Andrew Martin.
The Twentieth Century Fox motion picture I, Robot (2004) presented an original story set in Asimov’s Robot universe featuring Dr Susan Calvin and other characters from Asimov’s I, Robot collection. The film originated from a spec screenplay entitled ‘Hardwired’ written in 1995 by Jeff Vintar. While this earlier script had no direct connections with Asimov, it was considered suitably ‘Asimovian’ in nature (being a ‘locked room’ murder mystery with robot suspects) to provide the basis for an I, Robot movie. Elements from several Asimov robot stories were woven into the overall storyline, including “Little Lost Robot”, “The Evitable Conflict” and “Robot Dreams”. The movie starred Will Smith as Del Spooner and Bridget Moynahan as Susan Calvin.”
“The Three Laws of Robotics (often shortened to The Three Laws or Three Laws) are a set of rules devised by the science fiction author Isaac Asimov and later added to. The rules were introduced in his 1942 short story “Runaround”, although they had been foreshadowed in a few earlier stories. The Three Laws are:
A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
A robot must obey the orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Laws.
These form an organizing principle and unifying theme for Asimov’s robotic-based fiction, appearing in his Robot series, the stories linked to it, and his Lucky Starr series of young-adult fiction. The Laws are incorporated into almost all of the positronic robots appearing in his fiction, and cannot be bypassed, being intended as a safety feature. Many of Asimov’s robot-focused stories involve robots behaving in unusual and counter-intuitive ways as an unintended consequence of how the robot applies the Three Laws to the situation in which it finds itself. Other authors working in Asimov’s fictional universe have adopted them and references, often parodic, appear throughout science fiction as well as in other genres.
The original laws have been altered and elaborated on by Asimov and other authors. Asimov himself made slight modifications to the first three in various books and short stories to further develop how robots would interact with humans and each other; he also added a fourth, or zeroth law, to precede the others:
0. A robot may not harm humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.”The Three Laws, and the zeroth, have pervaded science fiction and are referred to in many books, films, and other media.”
“Significant advances in artificial intelligence would be needed for robots to understand the Three Laws. However, as the complexity of robots has increased, so has interest in developing guidelines and safeguards for their operation.
In a 2007 guest editorial in the journal Science on the topic of “Robot Ethics,” SF author Robert J. Sawyer argues that since the military is a major source of funding for robotic research it is unlikely such laws would be built into their designs. In a separate essay, Sawyer generalizes this argument to cover other industries stating:
The development of AI is a business, and businesses are notoriously uninterested in fundamental safeguards — especially philosophic ones. (A few quick examples: the tobacco industry, the automotive industry, the nuclear industry. Not one of these has said from the outset that fundamental safeguards are necessary, every one of them has resisted externally imposed safeguards, and none has accepted an absolute edict against ever causing harm to humans.)
David Langford has suggested a tongue-in-cheek set of laws:
A robot will not harm authorized Government personnel but will terminate intruders with extreme prejudice.
A robot will obey the orders of authorized personnel except where such orders conflict with the Third Law.
A robot will guard its own existence with lethal antipersonnel weaponry, because a robot is bloody expensive.
Roger Clarke (aka Rodger Clarke) wrote a pair of papers analyzing the complications in implementing these laws in the event that systems were someday capable of employing them. He argued “Asimov’s Laws of Robotics have been a very successful literary device. Perhaps ironically, or perhaps because it was artistically appropriate, the sum of Asimov’s stories disprove the contention that he began with: It is not possible to reliably constrain the behaviour of robots by devising and applying a set of rules.” On the other hand Asimov’s later novels The Robots of Dawn, Robots and Empire and Foundation and Earth imply that the robots inflicted their worst long-term harm by obeying the Three Laws perfectly well, thereby depriving humanity of inventive or risk-taking behaviour.
In March 2007 the South Korean government announced that later in the year it would issue a “Robot Ethics Charter” setting standards for both users and manufacturers. According to Park Hye-Young of the Ministry of Information and Communication the Charter may reflect Asimov’s Three Laws, attempting to set ground rules for the future development of robotics.
The futurist Hans Moravec (a prominent figure in the transhumanist movement) proposed that the Laws of Robotics should be adapted to “corporate intelligences” — the corporations driven by AI and robotic manufacturing power which Moravec believes will arise in the near future. In contrast, the David Brin novel Foundation’s Triumph (1999) suggests that the Three Laws may decay into obsolescence: Robots use the Zeroth Law to rationalize away the First Law and robots hide themselves from human beings so that the Second Law never comes into play. Brin even portrays R. Daneel Olivaw worrying that, should robots continue to reproduce themselves, the Three Laws would become an evolutionary handicap and natural selection would sweep the Laws away — Asimov’s careful foundation undone by evolutionary computation. Although the robots would not be evolving through design instead of mutation because the robots would have to follow the Three Laws while designing and the prevalence of the laws would be ensured, design flaws or construction errors could functionally take the place of biological mutation.
In the July/August 2009 issue of IEEE Intelligent Systems, Robin Murphy (Raytheon Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at Texas A&M) and David D. Woods (director of the Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory at Ohio State) proposed “The Three Laws of Responsible Robotics” as a way to stimulate discussion about the role of responsibility and authority when designing not only a single robotic platform but the larger system in which the platform operates. The laws are as follows:
A human may not deploy a robot without the human-robot work system meeting the highest legal and professional standards of safety and ethics.
A robot must respond to humans as appropriate for their roles.
A robot must be endowed with sufficient situated autonomy to protect its own existence as long as such protection provides smooth transfer of control which does not conflict with the First and Second Laws.
Woods said, “Our laws are little more realistic, and therefore a little more boring” and that “The philosophy has been, ‘sure, people make mistakes, but robots will be better – a perfect version of ourselves.’ We wanted to write three new laws to get people thinking about the human-robot relationship in more realistic, grounded ways.””
“Transhumanism, abbreviated as H+ or h+, is an international intellectual and cultural movement that affirms the possibility and desirability of fundamentally transforming the human condition by developing and making widely available technologies to eliminate aging and to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities. Transhumanist thinkers study the potential benefits and dangers of emerging technologies that could overcome fundamental human limitations, as well as study the ethical matters involved in developing and using such technologies. They predict that human beings may eventually be able to transform themselves into beings with such greatly expanded abilities as to merit the label “posthuman”.
The contemporary meaning of the term transhumanism was foreshadowed by one of the first professors of futurology, FM-2030, who taught “new concepts of the Human” at The New School of New York City in the 1960s, when he began to identify people who adopt technologies, lifestyles and world views transitional to “posthumanity” as “transhuman”. This hypothesis would lay the intellectual groundwork for the British philosopher Max More to begin articulating the principles of transhumanism as a futurist philosophy in 1990, and organizing in California an intelligentsia that has since grown into the worldwide transhumanist movement.
Influenced by seminal works of science fiction, the transhumanist vision of a transformed future humanity has attracted many supporters and detractors from a wide range of perspectives. Transhumanism has been condemned by one critic, Francis Fukuyama, as the world’s most dangerous idea, while one proponent, Ronald Bailey, counters that it is the “movement that epitomizes the most daring, courageous, imaginative, and idealistic aspirations of humanity”.”
“The very traits that make someone creative, passionate, and likely to achieve a high degree of success in their domain, are the same traits that define psychological disorders such as Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia, and ADHD. So what is the difference between creativity and psychopathology? Where do we draw the line between functional excess of extreme traits and the point at which they define a psychological disorder?”(H+ Magazine)”
“While many transhumanist theorists and advocates seek to apply reason, science and technology for the purposes of reducing poverty, disease, disability, and malnutrition around the globe, transhumanism is distinctive in its particular focus on the applications of technologies to the improvement of human bodies at the individual level. Many transhumanists actively assess the potential for future technologies and innovative social systems to improve the quality of all life, while seeking to make the material reality of the human condition fulfill the promise of legal and political equality by eliminating congenital mental and physical barriers.
Transhumanist philosophers argue that there not only exists a perfectionist ethical imperative for humans to strive for progress and improvement of the human condition but that it is possible and desirable for humanity to enter a transhuman phase of existence, in which humans are in control of their own evolution. In such a phase, natural evolution would be replaced with deliberate change.
Some theorists, such as Raymond Kurzweil, think that the pace of technological innovation is accelerating and that the next 50 years may yield not only radical technological advances but possibly a technological singularity, which may fundamentally change the nature of human beings.Transhumanists who foresee this massive technological change generally maintain that it is desirable. However, some are also concerned with the possible dangers of extremely rapid technological change and propose options for ensuring that advanced technology is used responsibly. For example, Bostrom has written extensively on existential risks to humanity’s future welfare, including risks that could be created by emerging technologies.”
“The technological singularity is the hypothetical future emergence of greater-than-human intelligence through technological means. Since the capabilities of such intelligence would be difficult for an unaided human mind to comprehend, the occurrence of a technological singularity is seen as an intellectual event horizon, beyond which events cannot be predicted or understood. Proponents of the singularity typically state that an “intelligence explosion” is a key factor of the Singularity where superintelligences design successive generations of increasingly powerful minds.
This hypothesized process of intelligent self-modification might occur very quickly, and might not stop until the agent’s cognitive abilities greatly surpass that of any human. The term “intelligence explosion” is therefore sometimes used to refer to this scenario.
The term was coined by science fiction writer Vernor Vinge, who argues that artificial intelligence, human biological enhancement or brain-computer interfaces could be possible causes of the singularity. The concept is popularized by futurists like Ray Kurzweil and it is expected by proponents to occur sometime in the 21st century, although estimates vary.”
“Transhumanists engage in interdisciplinary approaches to understanding and evaluating possibilities for overcoming biological limitations. They draw on futurology and various fields of ethics such as bioethics, infoethics, nanoethics, neuroethics, roboethics, and technoethics mainly but not exclusively from a philosophically utilitarian, socially progressive, politically and economically liberal perspective. Unlike many philosophers, social critics, and activists who place a moral value on preservation of natural systems, transhumanists see the very concept of the specifically “natural” as problematically nebulous at best, and an obstacle to progress at worst. In keeping with this, many prominent transhumanist advocates refer to transhumanism’s critics on the political right and left jointly as “bioconservatives” or “bioluddites”, the latter term alluding to the 19th century anti-industrialisation social movement that opposed the replacement of human manual labourers by machines.”
“There is a variety of opinion within transhumanist thought. Many of the leading transhumanist thinkers hold views that are under constant revision and development. Some distinctive currents of transhumanism are identified and listed here in alphabetical order:
Abolitionism, an ethical ideology based upon a perceived obligation to use technology to eliminate involuntary suffering in all sentient life.
Democratic transhumanism, a political ideology synthesizing liberal democracy, social democracy, radical democracy and transhumanism.
Extropianism, an early school of transhumanist thought characterized by a set of principles advocating a proactive approach to human evolution.
Immortalism, a moral ideology based upon the belief that technological immortality is possible and desirable, and advocating research and development to ensure its realization.
Libertarian transhumanism, a political ideology synthesizing right-libertarianism and transhumanism.
Postgenderism, a social philosophy which seeks the voluntary elimination of gender in the human species through the application of advanced biotechnology and assisted reproductive technologies.
Singularitarianism, a moral ideology based upon the belief that a technological singularity is possible, and advocating deliberate action to effect it and ensure its safety.
Technogaianism, an ecological ideology based upon the belief that emerging technologies can help restore Earth’s environment, and that developing safe, clean, alternative technology should therefore be an important goal of environmentalists.”
” Although some transhumanists report having religious or spiritual views, they are for the most part atheists, agnostics or secular humanists. A vocal minority of transhumanists, however, follow liberal forms of Eastern philosophies such as Buddhism and Yoga or have merged their transhumanist ideas with established Western religions such as liberal Christianity or Mormonism. Despite the prevailing secular attitude, some transhumanists pursue hopes traditionally espoused by religions, such as “immortality”, while several controversial new religious movements, originating in the late 20th century, have explicitly embraced transhumanist goals of transforming the human condition by applying technology to the alteration of the mind and body, such as Raëlism. However, most thinkers associated with the transhumanist movement focus on the practical goals of using technology to help achieve longer and healthier lives; while speculating that future understanding of neurotheology and the application of neurotechnology will enable humans to gain greater control of altered states of consciousness, which were commonly interpreted as “spiritual experiences”, and thus achieve more profound self-knowledge.”
“Many transhumanists believe in the compatibility of human minds with computer hardware, with the theoretical implication that human consciousness may someday be transferred to alternative media, a speculative technique commonly known as “mind uploading”. One extreme formulation of this idea, which some transhumanists are interested in, is the proposal of the “Omega Point” by Christian cosmologist Frank Tipler. Drawing upon ideas in digitalism, Tipler has advanced the notion that the collapse of the Universe billions of years hence could create the conditions for the perpetuation of humanity in a simulated reality within a megacomputer, and thus achieve a form of “posthuman godhood”. Tipler’s thought was inspired by the writings of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, a paleontologist and Jesuit theologian who saw an evolutionary telos in the development of an encompassing noosphere, a global consciousness.”
“Transhumanists support the emergence and convergence of technologies such as nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science (NBIC), and hypothetical future technologies such as simulated reality, artificial intelligence, superintelligence, mind uploading, chemical brain preservation, and cryonics. They believe that humans can and should use these technologies to become more than human. They therefore support the recognition and/or protection of cognitive liberty, morphological freedom, and procreative liberty as civil liberties, so as to guarantee individuals the choice of using human enhancement technologies on themselves and their children. Some speculate that human enhancement techniques and other emerging technologies may facilitate more radical human enhancement no later than the midpoint of the 21st century.”
“Technogaianism (a portmanteau word combining “techno-” for technology and “gaian” for Gaia philosophy) is a bright green environmentalist stance of active support for the research, development and use of emerging and future technologies to help restore Earth’s environment. Technogaians argue that developing safe, clean, alternative technology should be an important goal of environmentalists.”
“Gaia philosophy (named after Gaia, Greek goddess of the Earth) is a broadly inclusive term for related concepts that living organisms on a planet will affect the nature of their environment in order to make the environment more suitable for life. This set of theories holds that all organisms on an extraterrestrial life-giving planet regulate the biosphere to the benefit of the whole. Gaia concept draws a connection between the survivability of a species (hence its evolutionary course) and its usefulness to the survival of other species.”
“The film Avatar depicts a world (Pandora) that functions like a single organism, in which various species of earth and sky cooperate with the humanoid population (the Na’vi) to defend the planet against a corporate-military invasion.
Gaia is depicted as a mysterious planet in Isaac Asimov’s science fiction ‘Foundation’s Edge’. It is described as a ‘superorganism’, where all things, both living and inanimate, participate in a larger, group consciousness, while still retaining any individual awareness they might have, such as among the Gaian humans. Gaians played an important role in shaping the future course of universe.”