“This system as explained by Kara Khalil Chendereli, founder of the Janissaries, “The conquered are slaves of the conquerors, to whom their goods, their women, and their children belong as lawful possession..”, indicates the clear opinion of an Ottoman official regarding devsirme.”
“In the form of “Spahi” it was the title given to several cavalry units serving in the French and Italian colonial armies during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
The name is Persian and derives from the Persian سپاه (sepāh, meaning “army”, but originally meant ‘cavalry’ derived from aspa=horse, with the compound name standing for a ‘horseman’) as does the English term “sepoy”.”
“Akıncı (Turkish: akıncı, literally, “raider”, plural: akıncılar)(Turkish pronunciation: [akɯndʒɯ]) were irregular light cavalry,scout divisions (delil) and advance troops of the Ottoman Empire’s military. When the pre-existing Turkish ghazis were incorporated into the Ottoman Empire’s military they became known as “akıncı.” They were one of the first divisions to face the opposing military and were known for their prowess in battle. Unpaid, they lived and operated as raiders on the frontiers of the Ottoman Empire, subsisting totally on plunder.
In battle their main role was to act as advance troops on the front lines and demoralize the marching opposing army by using guerilla tactics, and to put them in a state of confusion and shock. They could be likened to a scythe in a wheat field. They would basically hit the enemy with arrows. When attacked in melee, they would retreat while still shooting backwards. They could easily outrun heavy cavalry because they were lightly armed and their horses were bred for speed as opposed to strength. Akıncı forces carried swords, lances, shields and battle axes as well, so that in a field of combat, they could face the enemy first and fight melee. In some Ottoman campaigns, such as the Battle of Krbava field, Akıncı forces were the only units utilized without any need for Ottoman heavy cavalry or infantry.
Because of their mobility akıncı were also used for reconnaissance and as a vanguard force to terrorize the local population before the advance of the main Ottoman forces. Since they were irregular militia, they were not bound by peace treaties, so they could raid border villages and attack enemy garrisons, fortresses and border posts during peace time, constantly harassing the enemy and checking the weak spots on the rival country’s defences. They would also attack trading routes to cut enemy’s supply and transportation.
Akıncı forces were led by certain families. Well-known akıncı families were Malkoçoğlu, Turhanlı, Ömerli, Evrenosoğlu, and Mihalli. These akıncı clans were mainly composed of Turkmen tribal warriors with a leading dynasty which descended from the warrior ghazis of the first Ottoman ruler Osman I. Adventurers, soldiers of fortune, mercenaries, warrior dervishes, and civilians looking for fortune and adventure would also join the ranks of akıncı gangs.”
(These “akinci” sound like the precursors of our time Al Qaeda, Al-Sabaab, Muslim Brotherhood, Somalia Pirates, etc…..Like some “old” people say, “nothing new under the sun”.;+)……….)
I, personally, have been called, in my days, a Celtic, “Frangaoui”/French ” “Bashi-Bozouk”, which, for the times and the people saying it, was a compliment ;+)
“A bashi-bazouk or bashibazouk (Turkish başıbozuk, or delibaş, literally “damaged head”, meaning “free headed”, “leaderless”, “disorderly”) was an irregular soldier of the Ottoman army. They were particularly noted for their lack of discipline.”
“Although Turkish armies always contained bashi-bazouk adventurers as well as regular soldiers, the strain on the Ottoman feudal system caused mainly by the Empire’s wide expanse required heavier reliance on irregular soldiers. They were armed and maintained by the government, but did not receive pay and did not wear uniforms or distinctive badges. They were motivated to fight mostly by expectations of plunder.”
“The bashi-bazouk were notorious for being brutal and undisciplined, thus giving the term its second, colloquial meaning of “undisciplined bandit” in many languages. A notable example of this use is in the comic series Tintin, where the word is often used as an expletive by Captain Haddock.”(i.e., “ectoplasme, sapajou, anthropopitheque, moule a gaufres, bashi-bozouk”, etc, etc, etc)
This is why, maybe, Sarkozy, whose blood heritage is from Central Europe doesn’t want Turkey to be member of the European Union (EU).from one “bashi-bozouk” to an other……..;+)