The “New” Old Buzzword “Mutualism​” – 09/05/2011

For Your Entertainment (FYE)

BTW, be careful around “Pierre-Joseph Proudhon”. “Pierre-Joseph Proudhon” Wikipedia site triggered my Symantec Norton 360 Virus & Spyware Scan and found & fixed 32 risks!….:+(

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutualism_(economic_theory)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutualism_(movement)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooperative

“Mutualism is an anarchist school of thought that originates in the writings of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, who envisioned a society where each person might possess a means of production, either individually or collectively, with trade representing equivalent amounts of labor in the free market. Integral to the scheme was the establishment of a mutual-credit bank that would lend to producers at a minimal interest rate, just high enough to cover administration. Mutualism is based on a labor theory of value that holds that when labor or its product is sold, in exchange, it ought to receive goods or services embodying “the amount of labor necessary to produce an article of exactly similar and equal utility”.[3] Receiving anything less would be considered exploitation, theft of labor, or usury.”

“Proudhon’s Mutualism supports labor-owned cooperative firms and associations for “we need not hesitate, for we have no choice. . . it is necessary to form an ASSOCIATION among workers . . . because without that, they would remain related as subordinates and superiors, and there would ensue two . . . castes of masters and wage-workers, which is repugnant to a free and democratic society” and so “it becomes necessary for the workers to form themselves into democratic societies, with equal conditions for all members, on pain of a relapse into feudalism.” As for capital goods (man-made, non-land, “means of production”), mutualist opinions differs on whether these should be commonly managed public assets or private property.”

“Mutualists have distinguished mutualism from state socialism, and don’t advocate state control over the means of production. Benjamin Tucker said of Proudhon, that “though opposed to socializing the ownership of capital, [Proudhon] aimed nevertheless to socialize its effects by making its use beneficial to all instead of a means of impoverishing the many to enrich the few…by subjecting capital to the natural law of competition, thus bringing the price of its own use down to cost.””

“Mutualism, mutualist movement or movement of mutuals is a social movement that aims at creating and promoting mutual organizations, mutual insurances and mutual funds. The movement encourages and assists those whose access provides mutual benefits against any risks or to raise their material and spiritual, by making a regular payment or contribution. Mutualism, institutionalized through mutual funds, has been universally recognized as a generator or embryo of classical forecast and modern social security systems, and currently coexists with them. Although the fall in the popularity of mutual funds in many social environments coincided with the start of public social security system in the early decades of the 20th century.
Originating from an adaptation of guild system at the 18th century (see: guild, mount of piety) and widespread at the 19th century, today there are many mutualist associations worldwide integrated into modern society. Nowadays mutualism is linked to financial firms, insurers, unions, entities to promote solidarity economics, trade associations and religious movements. The characteristic sign of mutual movement is its institutional neutrality about political, religious, racial and union. Mutuals movement and cooperatives movement have many points in common, around the idea of professional mutual aid.”

“Cooperatives are based on the cooperative values of “self-help, self-responsibility, democracy and equality, equity and solidarity” and the seven cooperative principles:
Voluntary and Open Membership
Democratic Member Control
Member Economic Participation
Autonomy and Independence
Education, Training and Information
Cooperation among Cooperatives
Concern for Community
Cooperatives are dedicated to the values of openness, social responsibility and caring for others. Such legal entities have a range of social characteristics. Membership is open, meaning that anyone who satisfies certain non-discriminatory conditions may join. Economic benefits are distributed proportionally to each member’s level of participation in the cooperative, for instance by a dividend on sales or purchases, rather than according to capital invested. Cooperatives may be classified as either worker, consumer, producer, purchasing or housing cooperatives. They are distinguished from other forms of incorporation in that profit-making or economic stability are balanced by the interests of the community. Co-ops can sometimes be identified on the Internet through the use of the .coop gTLD. Organizations using .coop domain names must adhere to the basic co-op values.”

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