Dear Ladies and Gentlemen,
For Your Entertainment (FYE)
- 711: The Muslim conquest of Iberia begins.
- 718: Moorish Islamic rule is at its widest extent, conquering almost all of the Iberian Peninsula, the Pyrenees, and part of today’s southern France.
- 722:Battle of Covadonga in the north-west of Iberia. The Christian Reconquista begins.
- 739: Moorish garrison driven out of Galicia by Asturian-Galician forces.
- 800: The Franks complete the reconquest of all of today’s southern French territory and the Pyrenees and establish the Spanish March.
- 801: The Franks reconquer Barcelona.
- 914: Completion of the reconquest of the north-west. Muslims briefly retook Barcelona.
- 1085: Toledo reconquered by Castilian forces.
- 1236: Half of Iberia has been reconquered by the Christians. Cadiz seized by Castilian forces attacking from the sea.
- 1249: King Afonso III of Portugal takes Faro (in the Algarve), ending the Portuguese part of the Reconquista in 1250. The Emirate of Granada remains the only Muslim state in Iberia.
- 1300s and 1400s: Marinid Muslims seize control of some towns on the southern coast but are soon driven out.
- 1492: Treaty of Granada completes the Reconquista. “
“Arian Christianity, a sect which had been condemned as heretical by the Catholic Church and largely been eliminated in Europe, found a safe haven in the Iberian peninsula. The Visigoths had traditionally been Arian Christians, and it was the official religion of the Spanish Visigothic Kingdom until the conversion of Visigothic King Reccared I in 587 nominally eliminated it. However, because the Visigothic Monarchy (now Catholic) was detached from the public (Arian), the Arian undercurrent remained.”
“From 711 to 756, the Moors (mainly North African Berber warriors) swept over the Iberian Peninsula coming mostly from Morocco across the straights of Gibraltar, conquering nearly all of it and establishing a foothold north of the Pyrenees in Narbonne. They put down local rebellions and established the Emirate of Córdoba. At no point did the Islamic armies exceed 60,000 men. This launched 800 years of Islamic rule.”
“The many advances and retreats created several social types:
- The Muladi: Christians who converted to Islam after the arrival of the Moors.
- The Renegades: Christian individuals who embraced Islam and often fought against their former compatriots.
- The Mozarabs: Christians in Muslim-held lands. Some of them migrated to the north of the peninsula in times of persecution bringing elements of the styles, food and agricultural practices learned from the Moors, while they continued practicing their Christianity with older forms of Catholic worship and their own versions of the Latin language.
- The Marranos: Jewish conversos. Jews who either voluntarily or compulsorily converted to Catholicism. Some were Crypto-Jews who continued practicing Judaism secretly. All remaining Jews were expelled from Spain in Treaty of Granada of 1491, and Portugal also. Converso Jews often became victims of the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions.
- The Mudéjar and Moriscos: Muslim conversos. Muslims who were compulsorily converted to Catholicism. Most were Crypto-Muslims who continued practicing Islam secretly. They ranged from successful skilled artisans, valued and protected in Aragon, to impoverished peasants in Castile. After the Alhambra Decree the entire Islamic population was forced to convert or leave, and within a century most, if not all, were expelled. “
“The Reconquista was a war with long periods of respite between the adversaries, partly for pragmatic reasons, and also due to infighting among the Christian kingdoms of the North spanning over seven centuries. Some populations practiced Islam or Christianity as their own religion during these centuries, so the identity of contenders changed over time.”
“The Battle of Roncevaux Pass (French and English spelling, Roncesvallesin Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) was a battle in 778 in which Roland, prefect of the BretonMarch and commander of the rear guard of Charlemagne‘s army, was defeated by the Basques. It was fought at Roncevaux Pass, a high mountain pass in the Pyrenees on the border between France and Spain.
Over the years, the battle was romanticized by oral tradition into a major conflict between Christians and Muslims, when in fact both sides in the battle were Christian. The legend is recounted in 11th century The Song of Roland, which is the oldest surviving major work of French literature, and in Orlando Furioso, which is one of the most celebrated works of Italian literature.”
No wonder why Westerners and Muslims are traumatized when they talk about each others. :+(
Talk about a bloody history, even though it was a very rich time artistically and scientifically…….
In those days the Middle East and Europe educated each other!
Could we skip the massacres and go right ahead to learning from each other again?…….;+)
Big Hugs and Kisses to all! ;+)